This was found by Abraham Tamir, a Ph. He came to this conclusion after surveying 1, nose images. The shape of nose depends on the ethnic background of a person. Positions of lower and Lire la suite. Learn interesting facts about your nose, including nose shape, why you sneeze, your sense of smell, how to stop a nosebleed, how common nose jobs are, and more. There Are 14 Types of Noses Lire la suite. Another interesting and widely debated area is the impact of pheromones, which are very important to Lire la suite. Find out why your nose is actually very interesting ad important with these fun, yet informative facts.
Noses perform a number of vital functions for our body including, of course, breathing and filtering out unwanted particles. They're much rarer than teeth, but occasionally, megalodon backbones are found—most often the central part of the vertebra known as the vertebral centra. In the s, a fossilized spinal column with roughly vertebrae was unearthed in Belgium. Japan and North America have yielded megalodon backbones as well. Another thing that the giant fish apparently left behind is petrified poop.
The biggest recovered turd at the site was 5. Great white shark poop has a similar appearance because their lower intestines are twisted into a corkscrew-like configuration.
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Everyone wants to know how big it was—including the scientific community—but for now, all we can do is estimate. Ichthyologist John E. Randall once compared the enamel heights of great white shark and megalodon teeth, and calculated that if megalodon had the same general body proportions as living great whites do, the prehistoric fish would be roughly 43 feet long. Using a different formula, biologist Michael Gottfried and some of his colleagues concluded that megalodon reached lengths of 52 feet and could have weighed 48 tons. They published their findings in , six years before scientist Clifford Jeremiah used the width of megalodon tooth roots to calculate that a full-grown megalodon could be up to 54 feet long.
Even the smallest estimates hold that megalodon was longer, and probably a lot heavier, so it's generally considered the largest shark—and most likely the biggest fish —of all time. For instance, Carcharocles chubutensis sometimes called C.
We know this because there are fossilized whale bones covered in scars that perfectly match the size and serrations of megalodon teeth. Just last year, the list of nibbled-on remains got longer. A study published in March announced that megalodon bite marks had just been documented on several fossilized bones from filter-feeding whales, which were unearthed in southern Peru and are about 7 million years old.
One of the victimized species was Piscobalaena nana , which looked like a miniature humpback; it measured just 16 feet long from nose to tail. Diminutive baleen whales such as Piscobalaena were quite common in the tropical waters megalodon once patrolled.
As Earth grew cooler, small filter-feeding whales like Piscobalaena were replaced by giants like contemporary humpback and blue whales. Robbed of its favorite prey and unable to pursue newer, bigger cetaceans, megalodon may well have been doomed. Or at least, that might be part of the story …. In addition to whales and pinnipeds, megalodon's natural diet included fish, turtles, and distant early relatives of the manatee. Megalodon must have had a powerful bite to make short work of its prey. After running the model through a few simulations, the scientists reported that a live great white can close its jaws with pounds of force, which led them to estimate megalodon's maximum bite force at 24, to 40, pounds.
This is no longer the consensus.
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A comparison of several hundred shark teeth argued that the great white must have evolved from a type of extinct mako. Further support for this idea came in , when paleontologists examined a set of fossilized jaws belonging to Carcharodon hubbelli , a prehistoric shark that lived 6. Although the exact relationship between megalodon and great whites is still up for debate , the prevailing view today is that the latter evolved from some type of mako. Livyatan melvillei was a type of sperm whale named after an Old Testament sea beast and Moby-Dick author Herman Melville.
The creature was 45 to 60 feet long, making it comparable in size to its living brethren. Free Audiobooks, week This week's free audiobooks for teens! Download and listen away! Remember--listening to and audiobook counts for your summer reading time and makes a car trip or the dog walk go quicker! New Early Readers. Take a look at these new early readers! A Few Good Books: July Bull Mountain by Brian Panowich For the better part of a century, the Burroughs family have run moonshine, marijuana, and meth from their family home of Bull Mountain in the backwoods of north Georgia.
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We'd love to hear! Overdrive to the Rescue. Last week was vacation time for me and my family. My husband and I zipped along the highway to central Wisconsin with two kids and two grandparents sharing the back seats. Grandma brought along two new books for the kids, but my kids LOVE new stories and by the time we'd passed through Chicago all the grown ups were sick and tired of the limited reading selection.
What to do? Overdrive to the rescue! With a few taps on my phone, we had access to the library's Overdrive account with lots of wonderful audio books just for kids. Winnie the Pooh saved the day! There were plenty of choices for our preschool passengers. The kids and adults rode happily for the rest of the trip.
Run-on sentences aside, was a good year. There's Still Time! It's July 13th and maybe you're worried that the Summer Reading Program has passed you by. If you haven't started yet, there's still time! You've got until July 31st to track the time you spend reading and get your gifts.
Just check out the details here! There's also still time to do all sorts of fun summer stuff! Have you It's not too late! Theyyyyyy're here Yes, my little buckaroos, it's time for a few upcoming book releases coming to a library near you. These books are due to be released July 15 to August 14, And, as before, those are the publishing dates not the dates they will line your favorite library shelves. Suggested m use: Ariana Grande. West needs to know what Confucius says.
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The phrase "eastern philosophy" was swirling around the West about the same time Ravi Shankar was sitting around with his sitar. Add the popularization of yoga and meditative Buddhism and it was easy for an American in the s to equate eastern wisdom with Indian culture. Meanwhile, China was into its Cultural Revolution. Things have changed. China was the global economic engine of the past generation, and while its government still stifles freedoms, you can understand people who might like its seeming orderliness today compared to the frequent reports of sectarian and sexual violence coming out of India and its neighboring states.
Now a new little book goes way back in history to explain to Westerners the wisdoms that made China the most successful ongoing civilization for 2, years -- and may be helping it surge again now that Mao Tse-tung is long dead. While Greek thinking led to theological and scientific advances, the Chinese thinkers focused more on how people can live together peacefully and prosperously.
Much of their advice soon became embedded in Chinese society. The Greco-Roman world worked well enough for a few centuries and then fell apart, but China kept chugging along so steadily that even when invaders occasionally conquered it, the Chinese way of ordering society quickly absorbed them. And for most of that time, Chinese culture kept coming up with technologies superior to those in the West or India. India saw the rise and fall of many empires and city states with little to show in what could be called material progress.
And while they don't make the explicit comparison, I think Puett and Gross-Loh would put part of the blame on the inward-focused meditative aspect of Indian culture, somewhat comparable to the quest for personal salvation that was central to Medieval Western culture. Instead of looking inward or skyward for life's answers, the authors emphasize, the Chinese philosophers looked for the best ways for people to use the material world and relate to each other.
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China in the 21st century is no utopia, but given the turbulence in the Islamic world, China's vision of economic prosperity combined with social controls is the dominant philosophical argument against the West's emphasis on personal freedom. Evan - Married, three children, two grandchildren, formerly a newspaper journalist, now a public librarian, at all times a board game nut. Watch It and Read It! Here are some new books that go along with summer movies and TV shows. Do you have a favorite?
Independence Day. Editor's Note: Originally published July 4, Skirmishes between the colonial militiamen and British troops may have begun in April , but it was in June of , that representatives of the 13 colonies met to consider officially declaring their independence from Great Britain.
On July 2nd, the Second Continental Congress voted in favor of independence, and two days later, on July 4th, its delegates adopted the Declaration of Independence. Because the vote in favor of independence occurred on July 2nd, John Adams believed that was the correct day to celebrate. The British may have been our adversary long ago, but for the past century they have been a close ally. In July , the estimated number of people living in the United States was 2.
Today, that number is The Library of Congress offers an extensive online collection of resources related to Independence Day: Declaring Independence: Drafting the Documents provides a Chronology of Events leading up to the revolution and a fragment of an early draft of the Declaration.